IP Addressing (Internet Protocol Address) is a unique number given to a node on a computer network. It is of two types, i.e. IPv4 and IPv6.
Starting with IPv4.
It is a 32bit number give to a node on a computer network to communicate, sharing files and services.
It consist of 32bit numbers divided into 4 octets(blocks) of 8 bits each.
Each 32 bit binary digit can either be in an ON state or an OFF state i.e. 1 or 0.
11000000.10101000.00000000.000000001 = 32 bits
(this is how the computer understands the IP Address )
Furthermore, this can be easily understood by we humans in decimal form.
Please note this magic numbers : 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 in addition make up 255
Each octet represents an instance of the magic numbers.
In here, for the first octet
128 + 64 = 192
128 + 32 + 8 = 168
No on bits = 0
1 = 1
This gives us 192.168.0.1 decimal which is equivalent to 11000000.10101000.00000000.000000001 in binary bits
Now that we are aware of and IP Address being divided into 4 Octets. It is further divided into 2 numbers
Namely Network ID and Host ID
The Network Id represents the identity of the network whiles Host ID represents the identity of the computer or node on that network
A subnet mask is used to determine the Network ID and Host ID portion of an IPv4 address. Continue to understand better.